Cloud Computing

Various definitions and interpretations of “clouds” and / or “cloud computing” exist. With particular respect to the various usage scopes the term is employed to, we will try to give a representative (as opposed  to  complete)  set  of  definitions  as  recommendation  towards  future  usage  in  the  cloud computing related research space. This report does not claim completeness with this respect, as it does  not  introduce  a  new  terminology,  but  tries  to  capture  an  abstract  term  in  a  way  that  best represents the technological aspects and issues related to it.



cloud computing



Cloud computing is a marketing term for technologies that provide computation, software, data access, and storage services that do not require end-user knowledge of the physical location and configuration of the system that delivers the services. A parallel to this concept can be drawn with the electricity grid, wherein end-users consume power without needing to understand the component devices or infrastructure required to provide the service.
Also, it is a delivery model for IT, the services based on Internet protocols, and it typically involves provisioning of dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources. It is a byproduct and consequence of the ease-of-access to remote computing sites provided by the Internet. This may take the form of web-based tools or applications that users can access and use through a web browser as if the programs were installed locally on their own computers.

     A.   Terminology

In its broadest form, we can define 
a  'cloud'  is  an  elastic  execution  environment  of  resources  involving  multiple
stakeholders  and  providing  a  metered  service  at  multiple  granularities  for  a specified level of quality (of service). Cloud computing is a marketing term for technologies that provide computation, software, data access, and storage services that do not require end-user knowledge of the physical location and configuration of the system that delivers the services.

In  other  words,  clouds  as  we  understand  them  in  the  context  of  this  document  are  primarily platforms  that  allow  execution  in  various  forms.


Cloud computing is the delivery of computing as a service rather than a product, whereby shared resources, software, and information are provided to computers and other devices as a metered service over a network (typically the Internet).
Cloud computing is a marketing term for technologies that provide computation, software, data access, and storage services that do not require end-user knowledge of the physical location and configuration of the system that delivers the services.
It is a technology that uses the internet and central remote servers to maintain data and applications. It allows consumers and businesses to use applications without installation and access their personal files at any computer with internet access. This technology allows for much more efficient computing by centralizing storage, memory, processing and bandwidth. 
cloud computing

     B.   LAYERS

Once an internet protocol connection is established among several computers, it is possible to share services within any one of the following layers.

CLIENT

A cloud client consists of computer hardware and/or computer software that relies on cloud computing for application delivery and that is in essence useless without it. Examples include some computers (example: Chromebooks), phones (example: Google Nexus series) and other devices, operating systems (example: Google Chrome OS), and browsers.

APPLICATION

Cloud application services or "Software as a Service (SaaS)" deliver software as a service over the Internet, eliminating the need to install and run the application on the customer's own computers and simplifying maintenance and support.
A cloud application is software provided as a service. It consists of the following: a package of interrelated tasks, the definition of these tasks, and the configuration files, which contain dynamic information about tasks at run-time. Cloud tasks provide compute, storage, communication and management capabilities. Tasks can be cloned into multiple virtual machines, and are accessible through application programmable interfaces (API).
cloud computing

 

PLATFORM

Cloud platform services, also known as platform as a service (PaaS), deliver a computing platform and/or solution stack as a service, often consuming cloud infrastructure and sustaining cloud applications. It facilitates deployment of applications without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers.  Cloud computing is becoming a major change in our industry, and one of the most important parts of this change is the shift of cloud platforms.
INFRASTRUCTURE
Cloud infrastructure services, also known as "infrastructure as a service" (IaaS), deliver computer infrastructure – typically a platform virtualization environment as a service, along with raw (block) storage and networking. Rather than purchasing servers, software, data-center space or network equipment, clients instead buy those resources as a fully outsourced service. Suppliers typically bill such services on a utility computing basis; the amount of resources consumed (and therefore the cost) will typically reflect the level of activity.
SERVERS
The servers layer consists of computer hardware and/or computer software products that are specifically designed for the delivery of cloud services, including multi-core processors, cloud-specific operating systems and combined offerings.

      C.   Deployment Models


PUBLIC CLOUD
A public cloud is one based on the standard cloud computing model, in which a service provider makes resources, such as applications and storage, available to the general public over the Internet. Public cloud services may be free or offered on a pay-per-usage model.
COMMUNITY CLOUD
Community cloud shares infrastructure between several organizations from a specific community with common concerns (security, compliance, jurisdiction, etc.), whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally.
HYBRID CLOUD
Hybrid cloud is a composition of two or more clouds (private, community, or public) that remain unique entities but are bound together, offering the benefits of multiple deployment models.
PRIVATE CLOUD
Private cloud is infrastructure operated solely for a single organization, whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally.


     D.  Example

A simple example of cloud computing is Yahoo email, Gmail, or Hotmail etc. You don’t need software or a server to use them. All a consumer would need is just an internet connection and you can start sending emails. The server and email management software is all on the cloud (internet) and is totally managed by the cloud service provider Yahoo, Google etc. The consumer gets to use the software alone and enjoy the benefits.
Cloud computing is broken down into three segments: "application" "storage" and "connectivity." Each segment serves a different purpose and offers different products for businesses and individuals around the world.


       I.            Cloud Computing Architecture


         A.          Introduction
The Cloud Computing Architecture of a cloud solution is the structure of the system, which comprises on-premise and cloud resources, services, middleware, and software components, geo-location, the externally visible properties of those, and the relationships between them. The term also refers to documentation of a system's cloud computing architecture. Documenting facilitates communication between stakeholders, documents early decisions about high-level design, and allows reuse of design components and patterns between projects.

         B.          Major building blocks 
cloud computing

Reference Architecture
·         Basis for documentation, project communication
·         Stakeholder and team communication
·         Payment, contract, and cost models
Technical Architecture
·         Structuring according to XaaS Stack
·         Adopting Cloud Platform paradigms
·         Structuring cloud services and cloud components
·         Showing relationships and external endpoints
·         Middleware and communication
·         Management and security
Deployment Operation Architecture
·         Geo-location check (Legal issues, export control)
·         Operation and monitoring.

         C.          Examples

There  are  plenty  of  examples  of  applications  that  could utilize  the  power  of  Cloud  Architectures.  These  range from  back-office  bulk  processing  systems  to  web applications. Some are listed below:

           Processing Pipelines

·         Document  processing  pipelines  convert hundreds  of  thousands  of  documents  from MS Word  to  PDF,  OCR  millions  of pages/images into raw searchable text 
·         Image  processing  pipelines    create  thumbnails  or  low  resolution  variants  of  an  image,  resize millions of images
·         Video  transcoding  pipelines    transcode  AVI  to MPEG movies
·         Indexing – create an index of web crawl data
·         Data  mining    perform  search  over  millions  of records 

           Batch Processing Systems

·         Back-office  applications  (in  financial,  insurance or retail sectors)
·         Log  analysis    analyze  and  generate daily/weekly reports
·         Nightly  builds    perform  nightly  automated builds  of  source  code  repository  every  night  in parallel
·         Automated Unit Testing and Deployment Testing   Test  and  deploy  and  perform  automated  unit testing  (functional,  load,  quality)  on  different deployment configurations every night

 Websites 

·         Websites  that  ―sleep‖  at  night  and  auto-scale during the day
·         Instant Websites – websites  for conferences or events (Super Bowl, sports tournaments)
·         Promotion websites
·         ―Seasonal  Websites‖  -  websites  that  only  run during the  tax  season  or  the  holiday  season.

Conclusion 

Clouds offer the opportunity to build data observatories with data, software and expertise together to  solve  problems  such  as  those  associated  with  economic  modeling,  climate  change,  terrorism, healthcare and epidemics etc. Clouds could assist greatly in the e-government agenda by providing information in one place to the citizen, together with software to manipulate the data. 

It has been claimed – and indeed demonstrated – that Cloud computing is a green option. Development of Cloud computing is most beneficial in the world of technology.

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Is a Web Developer and Social Media Strategist. Has efficient communication and management skills.3 years experience of blogging and content writing. Fond of latest and futuristic technologies. Has a good experience of freelancing and marketing.

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